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[[!meta title="Manual installation using Linux"]]

[[!inline pages="doc/first_steps/manual_usb_installation.intro" raw="yes"]]

This technique uses the command line.

[[!toc levels=1]]

<h2 class="bullet-number-one">Install isohybrid</h2>

In **Debian Wheezy**, **Ubuntu 14.04**, and earlier the `isohybrid` utility is
included in the `syslinux` package. To install it, execute the following
command:

    sudo apt-get install syslinux

In **Debian Jessie**, **Ubuntu 14.10**, and later the `isohybrid` utility is
included in the `syslinux-utils` package. To install it, execute the following
command:

    sudo apt-get install syslinux-utils

<a id="step_2"></a>

<h2 class="bullet-number-two">Find out the device name of the device</h2>

The device name should be something like `/dev/sdb`, `/dev/sdc`, etc.

If you are not sure about the exact device name, with GNOME, do the
following:

  1. Make sure that the USB stick or SD card onto which you want to
     install Tails is unplugged.

  1. Open <span class="application">GNOME Disk Utility</span> from the menu
     <span class="menuchoice">
       <span class="guimenu">Applications</span>&nbsp;▸
       <span class="guisubmenu">Accessories</span>&nbsp;▸
       <span class="guimenuitem">Disk Utility</span>
     </span>

  1. <span class="application">Disk Utility</span> lists all the current storage devices in the
     left pane of the window.

  1. Plug the USB stick or SD card onto which you want to install Tails.

     A new device appears in the list of storage devices. Click on it.

  1. In the right pane of the window, verify that the device corresponds
     to your device, its brand, its size, etc.

     [[!img destination_device_description.png link=no alt="Drive description containing: 'Device: /dev/sdc'"]]

     On this screenshot, the USB stick is a Kingston DataTraveler of 2.0
     GB and its device name is `/dev/sdc`. Yours are probably different.

<div class="caution">

If you are not sure about the device name, you should stop
proceeding or <strong>you risk overwriting any hard drive on the
system</strong>.

</div>

<a id="step_3"></a>

<h2 class="bullet-number-three">Do the copy</h2>

<div class="caution">

<p><strong>All the data on the installed device will be lost.</strong></p>

</div>

Execute the following commands, replacing `[tails.iso]` with the path
to the ISO image that you want to copy and `[device]` with the device
name found in step 2.

<div class="note">

<p>Note that the <code>isohybrid</code> command modifies the ISO image. As a
consequence, you won't be able to [[verify|download/#verify]] it again
afterwards. We recommend you to execute those commands on a copy of the
original ISO image that you downloaded.</p>

</div>

    isohybrid [tails-isohybrid.iso] -h 255 -s 63
    dd if=[tails-isohybrid.iso] of=[device] bs=16M

Here is an example of the commands to execute, yours are probably different:

    isohybrid '/home/amnesia/Desktop/tails-0.6.2-isohybrid.iso' -h 255 -s 63
    dd if='/home/amnesia/Desktop/tails-0.6.2-isohybrid.iso' of=/dev/sdc bs=16M

<div class="tip">

If you are not sure about the path to the ISO image or if you get a
<span class="guilabel">No such
file or directory</span> error message, you can first type
<code>dd</code>, followed by a space, and
then drag and drop the icon of the ISO image from a file browser onto the
terminal. This should insert the correct path to the ISO image in the terminal.
Then complete the command and execute it.

</div>

If you don't see any error message, Tails is being copied
onto the device. The whole process might take some time, generally a few
minutes.

<div class="next">

<p>Once the command prompt reappears, you can shutdown your computer, and
[[start Tails|start_tails]] from this new device.</p>

</div>

Troubleshooting
===============

### dd: /dev/sdx: No such file or directory

Then double-check the name of the device you found in [[step
2|linux#step_2]].

### dd: /dev/sdx: Permission denied

You might also have committed a mistake in the device name, so please
double-check it. If you are sure about the device name, this could be a
permission problem and you could need to gain administration privileges before running the
commands in the terminal. That could be:

    isohybrid [tails.iso] -h 255 -s 63
    sudo dd if=[tails.iso] of=[device] bs=16M

### dd: tails.iso: No such file or directory

Then you surely have committed a mistake on the path to the ISO image in [[step
3|linux#step_3]].